Column Packing: Copper Mesh vs. Raschig Rings vs. Thumpers

Increase the Final Proof: Column Packing Showdown

Copper Mesh vs. Raschig Rings

The easiest way to increase the final proof of your still’s output is to pack the column with copper mesh and/or ceramic raschig rings. The still column packing will increase the final proof by giving the cool reflux within the column a larger surface area to trickle down and around. As the hot vapor moves up through the column it migrates through the network of distillation column packing material that has the cooler reflux water slowly trickling down through it. The slightly lower temperature of the reflux causes the less volatile substances in the vapor (water, fusel oils, etc) to condense out and trickle back down the column. When those components condense out, they heat the cooler reflux causing the more volatile components (alcohols) to vaporize and travel up the column with the rest of the gasses.
Try and visualize that for a second. Pretty cool, huh?
With this exchange happening, what you end up with is a super-concentrated vapor by the time it gets to the top of the still tower. When done properly with one of our dual-purpose still towers, you can achieve an alcohol by volume of about 95%! However, this isn’t always a good thing, which we will discuss later.

Moonshine Thumpers

Moonshine Thumper Diagram
Thanks to for the image

The simple explanation is that moonshine still thumpers help act as a basic second distillation stage. Before they are condensed, the hot vapors are bubbled through a cooler liquid in a separate container. In a similar fashion to what happens inside the reflux tower, the less volatile substances in the vapor (water, fusel oils, etc) condense when they come into contact with the cooler liquid and the more volatile components (alcohols) in the thumper vaporize as the condensing liquid heats them. So, typically, a thumper will bump your initial run from 100-110 proof to 140-150 proof, and without having to heat and boil in your still twice which saves both time and money!

However, because the moonshine thumper is essentially only one stage of enrichment, your final proof won’t be as high as the continuous enrichment of the reflux tower. However, with the reflux tower, you are condensing out the reflux and then eventually having to vaporize it again, so you loose that energy efficiency.

What if I am trying to make whiskey, rum, brandy, etc?

 A lot of people (mistakenly) think that only a pot still can be used to make good whiskey, rum, brandy, etc. The truth is that most of these products are distilled multiple times and a reflux column and thumper exist to perform multiple distillations in one run. So, by properly using a reflux still or thumper during your whiskey/rum/brandy run, you can save enormous amounts of time and energy.
However, be aware that if you are running a reflux tower at full efficiency, you will be stripping out all the flavor with everything else. This has a very easy solution: use less column packing!
Now for the science. Each type of column packing material has a Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP). This is the amount (height) of packing that is needed for that material to be equivalent to a plate (for example, one of the bubble plates in our copper bubble plate still tower). Each plate basically serves as a mini-thumper, creating another stage of distillation. The HETP for copper mesh is about 6.1 inches (depending upon the weave and how tightly it is packed) and the HETP for our 6 mm raschig rings is about 9.4 inches. So, if you want to make a traditional Irish whisky (which is usually run through a pot still three times), you could use 5.1 inches of copper (1 HETP) and 9.4 inches of raschig rings  (1 HETP) in your column to emulate those 3 runs through a pot still. Nifty!
As with anything distilling related, your tongue and nose have the final say. If you feel like you are stripping too much flavor out, take out some more packing. If you feel like you have too much flavor and want to bump up the purity, add some more packing!

What’s all the buzz about copper?

Column Packing - Copper Mesh
Column Packing – Copper Mesh

A majority of the old traditional stills you see are made out of copper, and there is certainly a reason for this. Copper will react with the hydrogen sulfide and isobutyl mercaptan vapors and form copper sulfate. This copper sulfate then bonds with fatty acids and oils to eliminate skunky and rotten egg smells, creating a better tasting final product.

Aside from its very low HETP, this is also a great reason to use copper mesh as column packing. We recommend using at least one pound of copper mesh inside your still column, which should help strip out all those sulfides and other various compounds.
Over time, as the copper reacts with the vapors, it will slowly start turning black. Don’t worry, this is normal! And, even better, the copper can be cleaned and reused. Simply soak the copper mesh in a solution of citric acid and tap water, and in a couple hours you should start seeing the copper color coming through from underneath the blackness. Eventually, the sulfides will react with enough of your copper that you will need to replace it, but it should be good for awhile!
Note: Don’t let the copper/citric acid/water soak together in an aluminum baking pan. It will end up all over your counter once the solution eats through the baking pan. Do I know this from experience?

If copper is so awesome, why would I even want raschig rings?

Raschig rings are a column packing made from a ceramic, and thus, basically inert (they don’t react with anything). This is great because you can re-use them over and over again for a lifetime! Over time they will absorb some of the fatty acids and oils that were mentioned above, giving them a slightly funky smell, but luckily these are volatile compounds (they had to boil out of the mash to get there in the first place)! You can simply lay the raschig rings on a cookie tray and bake them in the oven to vaporize all those compounds. On top of that, raschig rings are the cheapest column packing for the amount of space they fill up in your column.
So, copper isn’t the end-all be-all column packing material. We typically recommend packing your tower about 50/50 with copper mesh and raschig rings.

How to Install Copper Mesh and Raschig Rings

Installing your column packing material is very easy, but we’ll save that for another day and explain in depth how to assemble your new column. Check back for a link!


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10 thoughts on “Column Packing: Copper Mesh vs. Raschig Rings vs. Thumpers

  1. […] tower or hook up the cooling hoses. If you haven’t already, I would read our article on Column Packing – Copper Mesh vs Raschig Rings to figure out what type of column packing you […]

  2. se puede rellenar la columna de cobre con solamente cobbre mesh y ceramica sin tubos o se serpentin

  3. where can I get citric acid

    1. Mike, you can get citric acid from our online storefront. You can either find it in the “Additives” section or click the following link: citric acid (1 lb)

  4. I have two eight gallon ferments that seem to be full of something?? they measure on scale 1.35 they smell like a good ferment, this is a brandy, but the yeast does not seem to be working, I they have been working now ten days and are a yellow brown in color, would like to use the wine, but think I should do something, but what, should a guy put the ferment in a pot recook it, the and then try the yeast again, but how??? what should one do.,

  5. I have a 26 gal stainless steel pot still I fabricated in 1980. I used the inverted pot of an old double, commercial coffee dispenser for the hat. It works very well as a pot still. I have plans to weld a 4″ flange, (clamp style), into the top of the hat so I can add/convert to a 4″ column when I want to make vodka. How tall should I make the 4″ column that will extend above the “hat” and how should I pack it. Would I benefit from one of your 4″ site glasses at the top of the column or even a re-flux exchanger or would this be to much condensing that would never let the vapors go on through? I ran a mash made from out my naval oranges, (a wheel barrow full), plus honey. The highest part of the run was 155 proof, out of the pot still, and it tastes stout,(good + hot!) and smells wonderful. I need to learn a thing or two about proofing down/blending, and carbon filtering. I’m getting some good knowledge from your videos. Thank you, Mike If you publish this, please only use my first name.

    1. Hi Mike! In regards to you still head, a lot of that is completely personal preference, and you are likely to get a different response from different people. The height and quantity/type of packing material should be based on how much natural reflux you want. The more surface are on the head of the still and the more surface area on your column packing, the more vapor purification you will get. Granted, there are a couple other variable in there as well, but that is the basics of it. As far as the sight glass goes, yes, I highly recommend those. By allowing you to see the amount of reflux you have, it will let you get your process and product very well dialed.

  6. I am running a reflux coloum with a thumper and a fifty foot 1/2 inch wort chiller for a worm .I have only ran a 8 gallon flush run.It ran pretty good but i see im going to have to switch to electric heat. I dont have access to 220 volt so im stuck with 110 volt.i found 2000 watt heating elements,how many do i need for a 15 gal. beer keg. and how many for 47 gal. copper tank that im building. It is 24 tall and 24 across.where i have my unit set up is a short ceiling.I would like to heat the boiler up in a hour and then cut back on the the elements. Thank you for any help you can give about my set up or the heating set up, Robert.

  7. I have one of your 8 gal. stainless steel 2″ pot stills.
    Should I also use raschig rings with the copper mesh?
    There is not room in the column for both.

    Thanks, Jim

    1. You shouldn’t need any packing in a pot still column as there is no reflux. That being said, you will need some copper mesh for copper surface area to help get rid of the sulfides.

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